The Second British Empire (1783-1815)

After losing the American colonies, Great Britain focused more on its territories in the East and in Canada. For example, the Canadian population grew after many of those loyal to the British crown emigrated there from America after the American Revolution.

The British also gained new territories through the Napoleonic Wars with France. These included Trinidad and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), Tobago, Mauritius, Saint Lucia, and Malta. Singapore was added in 1819.

At the same time, the Empire continued its expansion into the Indian territory, including Agra and Oudh, the Central Provinces, East Bengal, and Assam. These territories were acquired by a combination of diplomatic and military tactics.

When the American colonies belonged to the British Empire, it had been common practice to transport convicts from Great Britain to the Americas. Losing the American colonies meant that Britain had to find another place to send convicts to avoid overcrowding their prisons: they chose Australia.

Australia was first discovered in 1606 by a Dutch explorer. The British came much later when th...

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