Forms of appeal


In his “Rivers of Blood” speech, Enoch Powell mainly relies on pathos, which makes his speech dramatic and foreboding. Ethos is mainly used when he wants to establish his authority and create reliability, while logos is only briefly used.


Powell appeals to pathos when he recounts personal stories and anecdotes. When he recounts the conversation he had with a voter, his purpose is to inspire both outrage and sympathy in his audience:

A week or two ago I fell into conversation with a constituent, a middle-aged, quite ordinary working man… After a sentence or two about the weather, he suddenly said: (…) ‘In this country in 15 or 20 years’ time the black man will have the whip hand over the white man’. (paragraph 1)

In this example, the personal story helps Powell introduce his ar...

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